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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

据IDC表示,2016年全球智能手机的出货量达到了14.7亿台,同比去年上涨2.3%。

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6.Head-Mounted Computer Displays
The online notice about the retraction lists all 107 articles and 524 authors, nearly all of whom are clinical cancer specialists from China. The hospitals named are all top public institutions.
“New Yorkers have been waking up and realizing this long period of prosperity has wreaked a little bit of havoc on things that we think of as classic New York,” said Simeon Bankoff, the executive director of the Historic Districts Council, noting that 2015 will mark the 50th anniversary of the New York City landmarks preservation law. “Things we always thought were going to be there are just closing left and right.”

他赢得了名动词奖,而其姐妹奖,最佳动词名词化奖,则由另一位顾问凭借这句“全球联络”(global touch-base)摘得。
Summly的两位员工将迁至雅虎的加利福尼亚州总部,但就目前而言,达洛伊西奥抵挡住了硅谷的诱惑。
“We miss a heck of a lot of people,” Mr Hoogewerf told the Financial Times. “I was in Beijing two weeks ago and visited this investment company. In the space of one afternoon I discovered 30 people who went on to our rich list this year. Last year they were under our radar.”

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

11月全国楼市整体退热 房价虚高城市或有风险?

不过,最大城市的房价上涨已经放缓,比如北京录得的环比涨幅只有0.5%,大大低于9月份的4.9%。
Attractions: Europe’s underrated gem.
n.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

这是5年来非合办EMBA项目首次跻身前5名,全球EMBA项目前5名的名次非常稳定。
v. 弄短,变短
2011年在达洛伊西奥15岁时,他就曾获得来自李嘉诚的种子投资。一年之后Summy发布,并在短短一个月内吸引了500,000名用户,在28个国家登上了新款应用软件热度榜的首位。对于一个连高中都还没毕业的人来说,雅虎的收购可谓意义深远。不过,达洛伊西奥的过人之处可不只是技术知识丰富这一点。在他连胡子都不用刮的时候,他就强烈向往、渴望著有朝一日能在科技领域做出一番大的成就。不仅要创新,还要有所成就,当然,还要大把赚钱。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • The programme entered the ranking in second place in 2006 and was ranked top in 2008.
  • 2016年家居业更多环保、质量标准将出台
  • 'There are two ways of doing natural language processing: statistical or semantic,' D'Aloisio explains. A semantic system attempts to figure out the actual meaning of a text and translate it succinctly. A statistical system-the type D'Aloisio used for Summly-doesn't bother with that; it keeps phrases and sentences intact and figures out how to pick a few that best encapsulate the entire work. 'It ranks and classifies each sentence, or phrase, as a candidate for inclusion in the summary. It's very mathematical. It looks at frequencies and distributions, but not at what the words mean.'
  • 展望:2016卫浴行业流行趋势
  • 杭州宣布暂停向公司销售新房及二手房
  • The mainstream remains the awkwardly named sector of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games, or MMORPGs. In October, six out of the 10 most popular online games in China are MMORPG games, according to the report. World of Warcraft by Activision Blizzard, Inc. (ATVI) still tops the list with the most registered players and peak simultaneous online users. But the current government regulatory fighting over its Chinese license, held by Netease.com Inc. (NTES), may yet have a negative impact on the game, according to the report.
    Brain death is a bit of an inconvenience if you're a fan of living, and if you're looking to replace yours with a spare, you're out of luck. Sure, maybe we'll one day be able to plant brains into skulls, but the brain's not just another organ. It contains all your thoughts and memories. They can plop a new brain in your head, but you'll still be gone, so the idea of making artificial brains may seem absurd.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 上海家居流通、网络零售领域将建市场信用平台, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

产业地产进入存量房时代 企业投资能力意愿下降

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

“房住不炒”深入人心 盲目投机要交学费

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Best chances: It's always hard to bet against Streep getting a best actress nomination, and Hanks is overdue for an acting nomination after missing out in recent years.
    鹈鹕一直在费力的吸引并留下自由球员,他们必须在这个夏天留下朱-霍勒迪,考辛斯的家乡在附近的阿拉巴马,而且他和安东尼-戴维斯是密友,同时,多个令人沮丧和伤病困扰的赛季让鹈鹕一直在失败的循环中摇摆。
  • 此外,广电总局还透露,虽然今年的票房增长受人民币贬值影响要稍低于35%,但是电影市场增长势头依旧强劲。
    “美联储比外界所预期的更加咄咄逼人,”克普克表示,“让市场感到意外显然并非上策。”(那时美联储尚未建立在货币政策会议后发布公开声明的制度。)
    这部电影有趣、使人着迷,有不少迂回的、令人惊喜的桥段,让你无法预测结局。和很多好莱坞最好的电影一样,这部电影闪耀人性光辉。既契合当下,又经典隽永。
    单词revision 联想记忆:
    但是,当今年12月WTO成员国聚集在布宜诺斯艾利斯召开两年一度的部长级会议时,我们将一尝世界新秩序的味道。一如既往的是,目前尚不清楚WTO此次能否产生一些实质性内容。但真正的考验在于,WTO有史以来第一次不由美国牵头讨论。中国或欧盟会取而代之吗?印度会像过去一样一心阻挠任何协议吗?

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 北京首套房贷款平均利率持续走低 跌破9.3折
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 热点城市租金上涨调查 有机构为“囤房”加价

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

注册营养师艾利克斯?图鲁夫称:“糖屑中含有糖分,而金片与此不同,它不含碳水化合物、脂肪或蛋白质,所以不能提供热量,没有味道,主要用于装饰。”
Mr Baweja’s extensive analysis on the changing nature of globalisation suggests the prime factor behind the weakness of global trade growth (which for a long time expanded at twice the rate of global GDP) has been a slowdown in investment.
Until now, testing reliably for lead was expensive and meant sending away samples for analysis.
Bra discussions: Lindsay Lohan discusses her lingerie needs with a sales assistant in the Naked store in SoHo, New York on Tuesday .  来!内衣分析一下:周二在
2016年度的《胡润百富榜》显示,姚振华的净财富去年涨了逾8倍,至172亿美元,他也因此成为中国的第四大富豪。去年他的排名是第204位。
10. 《66》(Sixty Six)。刘易斯·卡尔(Lewis Klahr)把数码短片精彩地汇集在一起,以一种英雄气概的方式复制流行文化,它只在MoMA上映过一晚。但他的作品也在洛杉矶和旧金山等城市上映,所以如果你住在附近,可以去看他的下一次展映。
Season\'s greetings and sincere wishes for a bright and happy New Year!

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 陆金所是最大的一家。它是中国平安保险(Ping An Insurance)的子公司,平安也是陆金所最大的股东。
  • 争做新时代“包租公” 资本竞速万亿元级长租市场
  • 然而,在开始攻读EMBA课程之前,男女学员之间已然存在巨大的薪资差距,女性平均薪资较男性低15%,女性和男性的这个数字分别为11.1万美元和12.8万美元。
    In fact, one ancient saying was, "ifyou have Kucha, only one percent of the states in the Western Frontiers remain unsubmissive."
  • 地价连续四个月下跌 下半年或将加速降温
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • A tender love story between a teenager and an academic, set in Italy.
    3)告诉我更多吧:这句话的潜台词:“洗耳恭听。”这是开启话匣子的终极法宝!当你向对方敞开心扉、表达好奇的时候,对方一定会做出善意的回应。而且,谁不喜欢听好听的呢?如果你真的对对方所说的话感兴趣,或许你就能促成一次富有成效的交流。
  • 或许不会是一个超新星,但是会有好球员快速地把他们拉回正轨,比我们之前讨论的其他队伍都要快。打完这个赛季,还完之前的债,然后就可以潇洒甩头,大步向前了。
    著名美国谐星梅丽莎?麦卡西收入为3300万美元,比去年增加了1000万美元。
  • 华莱士对一切说“好”说了一年,然后写了这本书。这个尝试既促进了他的事业,也把他带进过邪教集会。不过,电影没说的是,华莱士曾在数不清的钓鱼网站注册。显然,一直说“好”在现实生活中可不是一帆风顺。
    In 2011 the owner of the tomb was identified as Liu Fei (169BC-127BC) the first king of Jiangdu an autonomous kingdom within the Han Dynasty according to China News.
  • Rounding out the top three is Fleetwood Mac at $59.5 million. Though the band contains three men, it also boasts two high-profile ladies—Stevie Nicks and the recently-returned Christine McVie—rendering the group eligible for this list. Its On With The Show tour included 86 concerts during our scoring period, grossing well over $1 million per city.
    2013 Rank: 14
    3. Deepika Padukone
  • 会。莫迪一夜之间废除大面额纸币的做法令人震惊,严重扰乱了印度经济。但此举带来了丰厚的政治回报,支撑了莫迪作为愿意采取严厉措施打击腐败的果决领导人的形象。面临2019年的下一届大选,莫迪很有可能想拿出另一项轰动性措施来博取选民的支持。当心,他可能会对那些为了隐藏资产而以他人名义持有房产的富人采取重大行动。
    4.意大利威尼斯
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 特斯拉超级工厂落户上海临港 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

金砖会晤将给石材行业带来什么?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

商务部研究院:商品房购买预期上升 受访者看涨价格

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

货币政策操作更倾向结构性调整 短期内降准预期已基本落空

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

拉法基为渝量身定制新建材并为产品取中文名

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • “有个人把一杯咖啡摔在地上后就扬长而去。”
  • 但是他告诉华盛顿报的记者他依然很希望能够读到这封信,毕竟这封信是当时的纯真、关切和真诚的见证。
  • 安邦燕郊项目复工 5年土地增值超10倍

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 单词trademark 联想记忆:
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Emma Morano’s singular achievement in life may have been perseverance. She lived for 117 years, crediting her longevity to raw eggs and her lack of a husband. She died on April 15.
    以下十条就是你找工作时可能露出的“马脚”
    contain
  • 单词invigorate 联想记忆:

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 该报告还指出,在这方面一马当先的是律师事务所,明年有30%的律所有望扩员。该行业最紧缺的是拥有4~6年工作经验的律师助理,此外,熟悉“诉讼、医疗保健、破产以及止赎等细分法律领域的律师也将炙手可热。”
  • 加速形成京津冀“1小时通勤圈”
  • 目前我在创业领域中所关注的大趋势之一是“接触或获得的权利”。创新者们正在将曾经昂贵的、耗时的,或是不可能获得或效率极低的产品带给消费者。无论是学习新技能、激发新兴趣,亦或是叩开此前成本高昂的市场,创业家们正在寻找全新的方式来将独一无二且术业专攻的产品带向更为主流的市场。我们开始看到合作消费商业模式中出现了这个趋势,而我预测,我们将在未来几年看到“基于接触或获得的权利”商业模式的潮涌。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 相比水性漆 净味漆或更适合当前的家具漆市场
  • Household substance abuse
  • 2016年国家重点监控陶瓷卫浴企业名单
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

山东LED照明市场调研:木林森、雷士、欧普等品牌称霸

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 广州增城区重拳整治违法建设 今年已治理违建3853宗
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 长沙:摇号人数不超过可售房源1.5倍
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

18. Most Interesting Apology (tie) On Nov. 18, The Hollywood Reporter disgorged a 1,200-plus word apology for not including any nonwhite performer in its Oscar actress round table. Soon after, the director Alex Proyas and Lionsgate apologized for the lack of diversity in the cast in their new movie “Gods of Egypt.”

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

《初来乍到》(Fresh off the Boat),ABC,2月4日播出。这部喜剧是根据大厨与美食、旅游真人秀主持人黄颐铭的回忆录改编的,讲述20世纪90年代中期的佛罗里达,一个华裔美国家庭克服文化冲突,努力适应美国生活的故事。哈德逊·杨(Hudson Yang)饰演迷恋嘻哈乐的11岁男孩艾迪,在《采访》(The Interview)中饰演金正恩的兰道尔·朴(Randall Park)饰演他的父亲,一位郊区牛排餐厅骄傲的店主。
Unlicensed drivers who engage in the services will face a fine ranging from 10 thousand yuan ($1,500) to 30 thousand yuan ($4,500).
remembrance
The consequences are more parochial than those of Chinese data distortion. British law requires the ONS to produce the RPI and, given that it refuses to improve the measure, its fiddling affects hundreds of billions of pounds of contracts which continue to be linked to the RPI.
And regarding Ukraine, the Russian president again denied that there are Russian troops operating inside eastern Ukraine where a pro-Russian separatist movement is fighting Ukrainian government troops. But he said Moscow never denied that "certain people" were there carrying out tasks "in the military sphere." He said Russia plans no sanctions against Ukraine, but will not extend preferential trade to Kyiv.
4.《欲望都市》掀起纸杯蛋糕热
Wuxi, in coastal Jiangsu province, retained the top spot for a second month with growth of 4.9 per cent,
Dachis says: The end of year iPhone 5 and iPad Mini releases overcame early controversies in overseas manufacturing and any lingering effects from the death of Steve Jobs to make Apple the biggest mover of the year.
"Machines will be stronger and smarter than human beings, but they will never be wiser," he said, "because one thing's for sure: Wisdom, soul and heart are things that only human beings possess, and machines can never enjoy failure, success, friendship or love."
7. AT&T

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

Lgmi:库存看市场 需求相对减弱 北京建材库存小幅回升

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 对于上周有媒体称三星和黑莓正在进行收购洽淡的报道,两家公司都迅速予以否认。但全球最大的智能手机厂商为何愿意付出传闻中的75亿美元高价,来收购一家盛年不再的加拿大技术公司呢?答案是:因为后者持有丰富的知识产权——尤其是在前景光明的安全创新领域。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • According to the search engine, Euro 2012 beat Olympics tickets as the top internet search of the year in the UK, the Sun reported.
  • 个税起征点提至5000元有望10月实现
  • 所有这些合数值都比去年同期高,其中市场价值增幅最大(比去年同期增长13%)。这些公司在全球总共雇用了9000万人。
  • 北京二套房贷未现收紧 最低首付5成仍是主流
  • Bono and The Edge collaborated with Tina Turner on this, the sultriest James Bond song ever. This is a song sung by someone you will be attracted to, damn it, and for whom you would do just about anything. Tina Turner has more erotic confidence in one Golden eye theme than most of us will ever experience in our whole lifetimes. James Bond songs had never been this deliciously sweaty before. It's like pheromones set to music.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 唐山陶博会展览筹备进展顺利
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Tesla:In an effort to blunt criticism about slow refueling times for battery-powered cars, Tesla TSLA -1.54% starts to roll out of a network of battery-swap stations. CEO Elon Musk must hope he can outdo Shai Agassi’s Better Place, which tried to build a whole company around battery-swaps before going bankrupt in 2013.
  • engaged

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

住建部召开房地产工作座谈会:楼市调控不力坚决问责

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